Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process ought to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to a different.
It really is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electricity is converted into an electrical energy.
Types of transducer:
The two main kinds of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Rotary Torque Sensor is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical power itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and much more are the best samples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electricity by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for your Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (like quartz) with an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used for the structure, it produces an electric charge and, when an electric field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any sort of piezo mechanism may be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and therefore are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker is based on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are employed to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging are also based upon piezoelectrics. In cases like this, the Miniature Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while decreasing the input power at the same time, i.e. the program is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are generally known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually utilized to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are generally operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, for instance on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive implies that the resistance changes with all the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to produce a charge (energy) and they also cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and the other way around. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a great option for entry-level systems. Other sensors are available when cutting edge performance is necessary.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated under the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great selection for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to provide the controller the correct information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the best amplitude and phase output to the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any type of rapid actuation can cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, this implies, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it is going to cause. In the event these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system with a counter mass could be integrated and driven using a signal of the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out as well as the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is frequently utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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